How can I lose weight by running?

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Some do it for aesthetical reasons, some for reasons of health – losing weight. Especially in spring, people try to get rid of some extra kilos. Can running help? Yes, if you follow some simple rules!

A lot of people are constantly concerned with how they can lose weight. It is commonly known that, in order to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you eat. This can either happen through a reduced intake of food, or trough increased physical activity, by which we can burn more calories. It is all about the calorie balance, really. So, how can I achieve a negative calorie balance through running? And what do I have to take into account? Gommaar D’Hulst, Post doc in the Laboratory of Exercise and Health at the Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, has helped us answer these questions.

1) In what way does running help people to lose weight?

Increasing your energy expenditure by any form of physical activity, including running, can help to decrease body weight.

2) Can anyone lose weight with the help of running? 

Anyone can lose weight, as long as he/she expends more energy (kcals) than he/she consumes. The difference between people will be how hunger is regulated after (or in between) running sessions. People who get very hungry and compensate for the expended calories will have a harder time losing weight (more on this in question 6).

3) Can you continue eating normally when you start running (or run more than before) and still lose weight, or do you always have to change your eating habits as well?

No, you do not necessarily have to change your diet. It all depends where you come from. If you already eat healthy and stay away from processed food, there is no need for change. However, if you have an unhealthy diet, it might be worth to see a registered dietitian who can put you on the right track. A healthy eating pattern, of course, makes it easier to lose weight with running.

4) So, what do you think is the ideal diet if you want to lose weight but still have enough energy for running?

Adherence is the most important thing in any diet. If you want to choose a diet, choose one you can stick to. However, as already mentioned, I would not drastically change much when the eating pattern is already healthy. By healthy I mean 35-40% carbs, 25-30% fat, 1.4g/kg protein, little sugar and a varied eating pattern. I am not in favour, and also the research is inconclusive, in completely deleting one macronutrient (like carbohydrates).

5) Is it true that you lose weight faster if you don’t eat anything a few hours before and after your runs?

This is a slippery slope since this kind of eating pattern can induce food cravings (and weight gain). Another route worth considering is intermittent fasting. Here you will have all your food intake in 8-10h time-span, for instance from 9AM to 7PM. Research is very positive (certainly in animals) about intermittent fasting. In fact, even when total calories were matched, metabolic health parameters such as the sensitivity to insulin and certain liver parameters are positively influenced by intermittent fasting. This is certainly an interesting area of research, but the combination of intermittent fasting and exercise are not fully elucidated yet.

6) Is there any formula for how many calories you burn by running?

There are probably a lot, but here is one:

MEN: Calories Burned = [(Age x 0.2017) + (Weight x 0.09036) + (Heart Rate x 0.6309) — 55.0969] x Time / 4.184.

WOMEN: Calories Burned = [(Age x 0.074) — (Weight x 0.05741) + (Heart Rate x 0.4472) — 20.4022] x Time / 4.184.

However, I personally think these formulas are mostly nonsense because there are big differences between people (large standard deviations). Generally, people tend to think that they burn more than they actually do. That is, the food compensation after a run (or other type of activity) is often too high, by which the negative calorie balance is destroyed. This is something people MUST be aware of if they want to lose weight.

7) Will your body at some point adapt to increased physical activity and not burn calories as fast anymore, like it is with diets sometimes?

There is some data indicating that very active people unconsciously adapt to the increased physical activity in two ways: 1/ they start moving around less, decrease ‘fidgeting’ and 2/ get more efficient in using the energy for a variety of bodely functions such as food digesting and immune system, thereby decreasing basal metabolic rate (what you burn in a resting state). Moreover, one of the adaptations to exercise is that the muscle will be more efficient in producing energy for a given amount of oxygen. So, after a while, people will burn less calories for a given speed than before (also because they lose body weight and therefore use less energy to move their body). Thus, in order to keep the weight loss going, a person will have to run slightly faster (and longer) over time (or, of course, eat less).

8) Is it better to run fast, slow, for a short or a long period of time if you want to lose weight?

In general, it does not matter much. Losing weight is almost exclusively determined by energy balance. Some people will like interval training more, while others will opt for long easy runs. Again, it all comes down to adherence. Of note, because the intensity is higher, interval training will burn as many calories as longer slow runs, making it perhaps a more time-efficient method for losing weight.

9) What role does your heart rate play in terms of what your body burns or how fast?

Heart rate will be an indication for when the body is in the ‘aerobic’ zone (low HR) or in the more anaerobic (high HR) zone. So, it is a good measurement of intensity.

However, that you have to stay in the ‘easy’ zone to lose weight is a myth. Let me explain briefly by the following graph:

   

It represents fuel utilization at different exercise intensities, 40% is easy and 75% is hard. While muscle glycogen and plasma glucose are carbohydrate related energy sources (sugar taken from the muscle and blood), muscle and plasma TG (triglycerides within the muscle or derived from the blood, “other fat sources” in the graph) and plasma FFA (blood derived fatty acids) are fat related energy sources. As it is true that at easy pace you are RELATIVELY burning more fat (around 50% carbs and 50% fats) compared to running fast (85% carbs and 15% fat), ABSOLUTELY you are still burning less or the same amount of fat than when you are exercising at harder paces. In fact, at a harder pace, the relative contribution of carbohydrates is increased and together with the fact that you are expending more energy, you will 1/burn more or a similar amount of fat and 2/ burn way more carbohydrates at high intensities as compared to lower intensities.

A side effect of high intensity training this is that the emptied energy stores will have to be refilled and your body has to recover more from a hard run. The body thus taps the energy savings in form of fat. The aerobic energy systems (fat burning) will thereofre be increased the hours after a hard training session, meaning that your body is still burning more calories than normally when at rest. This will positively influence the energy balance for weight loss.

10) Is there a certain time of the day which is best for our body to run in order to lose weight?

There is recent research indicating that PM exercise might be better performance wise, but these studies did not look into weight loss. Fasted training (after a long period without food intake, i.e. before breakfast) is popular indeed, because the body will learn to rely more (albeit slightly) on free fatty acids (fat) for energy and it will increase metabolic pathways which rely more on fat oxidation (mitochondria and select enzymes). BUT: Solely because the body gets better in metabolizing fat, that the person will NOT lose fat more quickly! You still only lose it when your overall energy balance is negative. Think about it, it is similar as with the ketogenic diet. On the ketogenic diet, you will oxidize (burn) more fat, than on a normal diet, BUT you also take in much more fat. Thus, again, it winds down to energy balance, on the ketogenic diet or when training fasted, you can gain weight if you eat more than what you expend.

11) Should one combine running with a different form of exercise in order to achieve the biggest effect?

I would suggest that strength training should always be incorporated in a training scheme of a runner. Not only because its possible beneficial effects on losing weight, but most surely because of its effect on injury prevention. Stronger muscles, together with better biomechanics will have a positive effect on the longevity of a runner’s career. Additionally, proper strength training can lead to a more favourable body composition, meaning more muscles and less fat. On the long term, this will result in a slightly higher resting metabolic rate and thus more efficient weight loss.

 

Gommaar D’Hulst studied Sport Sciences and Biomedical Kinesiology at the University of Leuven, Belgium where he also gained his PhD. Currently he is working as a post-doctoral researcher at state-of-the-art “Exercise and Health” lab at ETH Zürich where his research concentrates on topics like muscle health and nutrient sensing. In his spare time you can find him in CrossFit Kreis9 for his daily Workout Of the Day. Follow Gommaar and his colleague Henning Langer on their Instagram-Account (@wod_science) for daily posts about the science behind strength training, endurance and CrossFit.

 

Edited  by: Marion Aebi

Calum Neff: Mileage Motivation

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“Practice makes perfect”, it couldn’t be any truer than in running. To become a better runner, you have to run, a lot. Gold Coach Calum Neff is no stranger to mileage and has some tips for staying motivated when your schedule says to “go long”. Why run mileage?

A majority of any training program will consist of “base running” with a few workouts trickled in-between adequate recovery. The reason for running mileage is not only so you can handle the hard workouts without injury but your aerobic energy system takes years of consistent work to improve.

When I look at my athletes profiles I almost always see they are not able to run an equivalent marathon time based on their performances in shorter distances like the 5k. For example, if you can run a 5k in 20 minutes, you should be able to run 3:15 in the marathon, but this is rarely the case for a new runner. This is because the athletes various energy systems are not equally developed, and that’s why we are here as your coaches!

Benefits of Mileage

  • Building aerobic base (endurance)
  • Becoming more efficient
  • Burning fat: Your body uses higher percentage of fat for energy during long slow workouts, rather than carbohydrates/sugars, this type of running is great for weight loss
  • Mentally prepares you for fatigue experienced during workouts and races
  • Injury/soreness resilience

How to stay motivated?

Hopefully you were not discouraged to learn that it can take years to build your aerobic capacity. Most programs, depending on the athlete, will have an initial month or two to build up your base, preparing you for the race season. Seeing long runs on your calendar, week after week, can be challenging mentally. Here are a few tips that work for me:

The Route

  • Pre-plan your route using online maps, picking out water and bathrooms as needed.
  • Pick a destination: Personally, I am very “objective based”, give me a target and I will do everything I can to get there. Choose a new park, a bridge, monument, a mountain, anything!
  • One-way routes: Getting dropped off away from home is huge motivation to get your run done, you have no choice. Have your running gear handy on family outings, on return you can get dropped off and fit your run in to a busy schedule.
  • Loop routes: Committing to a large loop is another great way to force yourself to complete your run.
  • Out-and-return: If you have a 20km run all you have to do is get 10km away from your house!
  • Run commute: Doubling your run as a method of transportation saves a lot of time (hopefully you have a shower at the office).

DSC00951

The Motivation

  • If your body is feeling tired and sore a long slow run will usually help, give yourself a few easy miles to loosen up.
  • “I regret that run” – said no one, ever.
  • Doubling: If a single run during the day is too much to try and reach your mileage goals, start adding in an easy couple miles every other morning as a double run for the day.
  • Give your coach a call! That is why we are here. If you are a Gold Program member you have a great resource at your fingertips. As coaches we always have ways to motivate or adapt a workout to suit your needs.

“I regret that run.” – no one, ever.

The Goal

As we head into summer, these next few months is where you lay the foundation for your running in the Fall, from cross country athletes to marathoners. This is the time where you can cut out a lot of intensity and just run long and slow. With summer comes the heat and humidity depending on your climate. Be prepared to run early or inside and if you are out in the heat remember to hydrate and adjust your pace and distance accordingly. Heat running and high humidity (also called “poor man’s altitude”), while tough, can be especially beneficial to your base building so try and embrace it. Your efforts will be rewarded in the Fall, sign up for a Gold Coach today and let us help you achieve your goals.

 

Neff_KatyHalf16_WR_BillBaumeyerThis blog post was written by Calum Neff, canadian born running.COACH gold coach in the U.S., 2:22h marathoner and Guinness world record holder for the fastest half marathon pushing a stroller in 1:11:27. Are you interested in a personal running coach? Click here.